Proof Terminology

 Proof terminology

Selection Indexes

ICC$

The Ideal Commercial Cow (ICC$) index is a sire ranking tool that was first released in August 2014. Building on its reputation for innovation, Genex created the index after producers asked for a better way to rank sires that create cows which excel in commercial conditions. The ICC$ index for Holsteins was updated in December 2016 to include three cutting-edge proprietary traits: Subclinical Ketosis (SCK), Metritis (MTR) and Foot Health (FH). ICC$ incorporates science and data-driven genetic evaluations from multiple sources including the cooperative’s research arm, the CRI International Center for Biotechnology (ICB). The CRI ICB research database includes nearly 4 million cows and 26 million recorded health events. The ICC$ Index for Jerseys was first released in December  of 2017. This index use three subindexes to help Jersey producers improve their efficiency. With the release of this index two new proprietary traits were released: Calf Survivability (CSRV) and Age at First Calving (AAFC). To learn more click here!

TPI®

TPI® is an index calculated by the Holstein Association USA, Inc. ranking Holstein sires on their ability to transmit a balance of selected traits. Traits and weightings in TPI are Production 46% (Fat, Protein, Body Weight Composite, & Feed Efficiency), Health & Fertility 28% (SCS, PL, LIV, FI,DCE & DSE), and Conformation 26% (PTAT, UDC, FLC & Dairy Form)

LNM$

The Lifetime Net Merit $ (LNM$) index measures the net profit over the lifetime of a bull’s average daughter. It puts a focus on health, conformation and production.

JPI™

JPI™ is an index calculated by the American Jersey Cattle Association and ranks Jersey sires on their ability to transmit a balance of selected traits.

Production

Daughters & Herds

This tells you the number of daughters the bull has included in this evaluation, along with how many different herds those daughters come from. A “G” identifies evaluations based on pedigree information and genomic testing.

Prod. Rel.

A measure of the amount of information in a trait. Reliability is expressed as a percentage, ranging from 1 to 99. The closer the Reliability is to 99, the more reliable the proof.

Fat (lbs)

PTA for butterfat in pounds, reflecting the expected butterfat production of future mature daughters.

Protein (lbs)

PTA for protein production in pounds, comparing the expected production of future mature daughters.

EBV Milk (kg)

EBV Milk expresses the difference between an individual animal and the herd or breed benchmark to which the animal is being compared

Fat %

Indicates the genetic variance of a bull’s PTA for transmitting fat as being positive or negative.

Protein %

Indicates the genetic variance of a bull’s PTA for transmitting protein as being positive or negative.

Conformation

Daughters & Herds

This tells you the number of daughters the bull has included in this evaluation, along with how many different herds those daughters come from. A “G” identifies evaluations based on pedigree information and genomic testing.

Udder Composite

Udder Composite is an index based on ability for udder improvement. Udder composite includes six linear traits, and the weighting for each trait’s contribution to higher udder scores. The traits and their weightings are: udder depth-35%, front teat placement 5%, rear teat placement-7%, fore udder attachment-16%, rear udder height-16%,rear udder width-12% and udder cleft-9%.

Rel

A measure of the amount of information in a trait. Reliability is expressed as a percentage, ranging from 1 to 99. The closer the Reliability is to 99, the more reliable the proof.

Foot Leg Composite

FLC is a measure of a bull’s ability for foot and leg improvement. Weights for the four traits in the composite are: feet and leg score- 50%, foot angle-24%, rear legs-rear view-18.5% and rear legs-side view-7.5%.

Health and Fertility Traits

Productive Life (PL)

Productive Life (PL) measures longevity. It is measured in months and allows you to compare how much longer one bull's daughter will las in milk than another. It shows her ability to stay healthy, breed back easily and produce enough mill to avoid cu

Somatic Cell Score (SCS)

Somatic Cell Score (SCS) indicates a higher or lower resistance to mastitis. This is one trait where a lower number is better.

Sire Calving Ease (SCE)

Sire Calving Ease (SCE) is the predicted percentage of estimated difficult births in heifers. It reflects the effect the sire has on the calf’s size. This trait is very important when breeding heifers. When breeding heifers, use of a bull with a SCE evaluation of 7% or below is recommended.

Sire Still Birth (SSB)

Sire Stillbirth reflects the service sire’s contribution to stillbirths. The lower the percentage the fewer the stillbirths one should expect.

Body Condition Score (BCS)

BCS is sourced from the Canadian Dairy Network (CDN). BCS reflects the animal’s energy balance status in which research has clearly shown an association with improved female fertility, longevity and disease resistance. BSC evaluations are expressed as relative breeding values with 100 being average. The scale of expression generally varies from 85 for bulls with daughters that generally have very low scores for body condition to 115 or higher for bulls with daughters that have high scores. Bulls rated over 100 are more desired.

Milking Speed & Milking Temperament

Data points come from the CDN. Milking Speed is evaluated in terms of the percentage of first lactation daughters evaluated as average or fast. Milking Temperament can be defined as milking behavior. Milking Temperament is expressed in terms of the expected percentage of future daughters evaluated as average, calm or very calm during their first lactation. A bull with a score of 100 for both traits indicates average.

Feed Efficiency (FE)

Feed Efficiency is the net profit a farmer receives from an increase in production. Feed Efficiency is calculated from the following information:

(Dollar Value of milk produced) - (Feed costs of extra milk) - (Extra maintenance costs)

Dollar Value of milk produced is based upon the 2017 Cheese Merit $ information from USDA-AGIL. Feed costs are the increased cost of feed per lactation that is eaten by higher producing cows. Maintenance costs are associated with body maintenance based upon the National Research Council plus increased housing costs minus income from heavier calf weights. Body weight is predicted from HAUSA classification data. The formula was developed as a part of the USDA multi-state research project on feed efficiency and a cooperative project with researchers at the University of Wageningen in the Netherlands.

FE = (-.0187 x Milk) + (1.28 x Fat) + (1.95 x Protein) - (12.4 x BWC)

Daughter Preg Rate (DPR)

Daughter Pregnancy Rate (DPR) is the amount by which daughters of a bull are expected to fall short or exceed the average 21 days to become pregnant. It is essentially a reflection of days open and it is important to understand that 1 point in DPR equals four days open.

Fertility Index (FI)

The Fertility Index combines several reproductive components into one overall index: ability to conceive as a maiden heifer, ability to conceive as a lactating cow, and a cow's overall ability to start cycling again, show heat, conceive, and maintain a pregnancy. The Fertility Index is derived from the formula:

FI = 18% Heifer Conception Rate (HCR) + 18% Cow Conception Rate (CCR) + 64% Daughter Pregnancy Rate (DPR)

Daughter Calving Ease (DCE)

Daughter Calving Ease (DCE) provides a percentage of difficult births for a heifer’s first calving. It represents the calving ability of a bull’s daughters.

Daughter Still Birth (DSB)

Measures the ability of a particular cow (daughter) to produce live calves. Stillbirth is expressed as percent stillbirths, where stillborn calves are those scored as dead at birth or born alive but died within 48 hours of birth.

Mastitis Resistance (MR)

MR is sourced from the CDN. MR combines both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis into a single genetic selection index. The MR index puts equal weighting on the three areas of clinical mastitis in first lactation cows, clinical mastitis in later lactations and somatic cell score across the first three lactations. MR is expressed as a relative breeding value where 100 is average.

Sire Conception Rate (SCR)

Sire Conception Rate (SCR) or Sire Fertility is a percentage calculated by the USDA that expresses the difference in conception rate for a given sire.

Cow Conception Rate (CCR)

Cow Conception Rate (CCR) is a percentage calculated by the USDA that expresses the difference in conception rate for a given cow.

Heifer Conception Rate (HCR)

Heifer Conception Rate (HCR) is a percentage calculated by the USDA that expresses the difference in conception rate for a given heifer.

Livability (LIV)

Livability (LIV) predicts a cow's transmitting ability to remain alive while in the milking herd.

Conformation Trait Profile

The traits in the the conformation trait profile are standardized transmitting ability traits. Standardized Transmitting Ability or STA is a number that represents trait extremes. Linear traits or type traits are expressed as STAs. The range of STA values is the same for all traits. It follows the bell shape curve, 68 percent of the STA values are between –1.0 and +1.0 for any trait. Ninety-five percent (95%) of STAs have values between –2.0 and +2.0 and 99 percent of all STAs are between –3.0 and +3.0.

  • Stature
  • Strength
  • Body Depth
  • Dairy Form
  • Rump Angle
  • Thurl Width
  • Rear Leg Side View
  • Rear Leg Rear View
  • Foot Angle
  • Foot & Leg Score (F & L Score)
  • Fore Attachment
  • Rear Attachment Height
  • Rear Attachment Width
  • Udder Cleft
  • Udder Depth
  • Fore Teat Placement
  • Rear Teat Placement
  • Teat Length

GENEX Fertility Traits

PregCheck™

PregCheck™ fertility rankings were developed by GENEX. The ranking is set to a base, meaning a value of 100 is
average. Every one point difference is equivalent to a 1% difference in conception rate. For example, if bull A has a 100 PregCheck™ and bull B has a 99 PregCheck™, bull A is predicted to be 1% higher in conception rate than bull B.

SynchCheck™

SynchCheck™ fertility rankings indicate represents a higher or lower conception rate when the bull is used in a synchronization program. SynchCheck™ is set to a base of 100, meaning a value of 100 is average. Every one point difference is then equivalent to 1% difference in conception rate.

PregCheck+™

PregCheck+™ fertility rankings rank indicate the conception ability of bulls available in GenChoice™ sexed semen with SexedULTRA™.

GENEX Health Traits

Subclinical Ketosis (SCK)

Subclinical Ketosis (SCK) breeds for cows that transition better and have lower incidence of ketosis. SCK is set to a base of 100, meaning a value of 100 is average.

Metritis (MTR)

Metritis (MTR) selection leads to daughters that experience fewer cases of metritis. MTR values come from a database containing more than 42 million health records and over 8.5 million cows. MTR is set to a base of 100.

Foot Health (FH)

Foot Health (FH) selection will lead to cows with fewer foot health issues. FH values come from a database containing more than 42 million health records and over 8.5 million cows. FH is set to a base of 100.

 

Recessives & Haplotypes

Recessives

Today genetic testing is available to identify animals that are carriers of a specific genetic diseases. If an animal is found to be a carrier, they are identified in their proof as such. Known carriers of a genetic disease should not be mated to other animals that are known to be carriers as offspring produced may be affected by the genetic disorder. Here are a few genetic recessives

Haplotypes

USDA researchers have identified 10 haplotypes appearing to inhibit fertility when these haplotypes occur in a homozygous state; in other words, when a specific DNA sequence is inherited from both parents. Five of these haplotypes are found in the Holstein breed, two occurring in each of the Jersey and Brown Swiss breeds, and a newly-discovered haplotype in the Ayrshire breed. Research is ongoing to further describe this genetic condition, confirm its mode of inheritance and determine the overall economic impact. Since the exact genetic conditions in producing an unviable embryo have not been directly observed and the biological causes are yet unknown, the haplotypes have been given the simple names of Holstein Haplotypes 1 through 5 (HH1, HH2, HH3, HH4, HH5), Jersey Haplotypes 1 and 2 (JH1, JH2), Brown Swiss Haplotypes 1 and 2 (BH1, BH2) and Ayrshire Haplotype 1 (AH1.) These haplotypes appear to be inherited in a recessive nature where animals with one or no copies of the haplotype are completely normal. Descendants that inherit two copies of the haplotype are lost as embryos or are stillborn.

BLAD (BL)

Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) is a recessive genetic disease characterized by a lack of certain proteins on the surface of white blood cells which allow the blood cells to leave the blood stream to fight infection and disease. BLAD cattle have severe and recurrent bacterial infections such as pneumonia, delayed wound healing and stunted growth. Most will die within the first year; those that survive will have low milk and reproductive performance.

BY

Brachyspina (BY) is a lethal recessive disorder that leads to embryonic death and stillbirths. Calves generally have severely reduced body weight. You will notice a shortening of the spine, and limbs that are long and thin.

CV

CVM or Complex vertebral malformation

DP

DUMPS, or Deficiency of the uridine monophosphate synthase

Mule Foot (MF)

Mule Foot (MF) is a recessive genetic disorder in which the calf is born with fused claws on one or more legs, resembling a mule or horse hoof.

PO

Observered Polled

PC

Teseted Heterozygous Polled

PP

Tested Homozygous Polled

RC

Carrier of Recessive Red Coat Color

B/R

Black/Red Coat Color

DR1

Tested Heterozygous for Dominant Red

DR2

Tested Homozygous for Dominant Red

TD

Tested free of DUMPS

TL

Tested free of BLADS

TM

Tested free of mulefoot

TV

Tested free of CVM

TY

Tested free of brachyspina